Tuesday, November 8, 2011

What To Leave Out of Your Resume

There's a lot one is supposed to put on their resume,

but have you remembered to pay attention to what should be removed?


if you have experience, your resume should show it. After all, your resume is the professional you - your life, experiences - everything that makes you a better candidates. And that doesn't mean you scrimp on the print cost and use a small font-size and abbreviated descriptions so that it all fits into one page. If you've lived large, your resume should be large.

Just a Degree?

Everybody being interviewed has a degree. What do you have (i.e. work experience) that sets you apart. And not only do you need to mention work experience, but your accomplishments - they further set you apart.

Bad Paper

The paper your resume is printed on shouldn't be of an inferior quality. While most cyber cafes stock high quality paper, this is still worth paying attention to. A discerning HR at a premium company might be turned off by faded yellowing paper. And only A4!

Useless Hobbies

A hobby is a activity you do in your leisure time. There's nothing wrong with watching TV as a hobby, but the HR interviewing you views your hobbies as an extension of your productivity, and will ask you questions about it.

Fancy Fonts

Times New Roman, Helvetica and Arial are your friends. Comic Sans is not. That said, be safe with only one font for all headings, subheadings and descriptions.

Typos, Bad Grammar

Not allowed. Use short sentences, small, words. If you're still unsure, have it checked out by someone who knows the language better than you.


If you're caught, not only will you be banned from the company, but you also might be blacklisted from a lot of allied companies.

Embarrassing Email Address

This one is optional, but it is still advisable to change your email username from something irritating (e.g. handsomehunk@mail.net to something simple. The easiest? your name@email.

Honorific Titles and Flowery Language

An HR will laugh at "May I bring to your esteemed attention…"in your covering letter, or any attempts at projecting a grandiose image of yourself. The real you will be sitting right in front of the interviewer in a few days, not the resume.

Tuesday, August 9, 2011

The Best Interview Questions You Never Ask

Job interviews are not fun.

Candidates hate to do them, and hiring managers struggle to find the time to squeeze them in. For most executives, they’re viewed as a necessary evil to building a team — a box to be checked, a hurdle to get over, so they can get back to business.

Worse, interviews are notoriously bad at predicting a candidate’s success. Studies show that a quarter of new hires wash out within one year and nearly half by 18 months.

This makes sense given that no one presents their most authentic and honest selves in interviews — after all, the game is to be wanted so you have the best negotiating power. And hiring managers fall prey to self-deception as it’s continually shown that perception bias plays a huge role in interviews. We form decisions quickly about whether we like the candidate, then ask questions and seek information that supports our viewpoint. We take it easy on the candidates who give a great first impression, and drill the ones who don’t.

So how do you get more adept at hiring solid employees with initiative? What can you do to determine culture fit and aligned expectations?

Considering how heavily weighted the interview is in our hiring decisions, our best bet is to get better at them. If we want more credible information, we need to ask revealing questions even if it feels forced or uncomfortable to do so. The standard vanilla interview questions simply don’t cut it, nor does the tendency to scrap the questions mid-way through and devolve into friendly chit chat.

Interviews are your chance to save yourself a lot of time and money so it pays to get a script of illuminating questions and listen hard for the answers (even if you don’t always want to hear them.)

I’ve conducted more interviews than I could count as an entrepreneur, and put together my own favorite questions that get to the heart of how a person thinks, works, and is motivated. I owe this list to colleagues and fellow business owners who’ve shared what works, plus lots of personal trial and error over the years. I’m not claiming these are the holy grail of interview questions, but they elicit far more than the standard “tell me your strengths and weaknesses” fare. More importantly, they reveal thought patterns and prior behavior — the surest predictor of future behavior.

Interview Questions for the Candidate

1. Tell me about our company. Give your top-line analysis.

Look for: initiative, analytical ability, values, confidence.

2. Walk me through the first 5 things you would do if you got this job.

Look for: strategic thinking, prioritization skills, execution style.

3. What 3-5 things do you need to be successful in this job? What are the deal killers?

Look for: culture fit, expectations, work style.

4. Talk about a time that you took a risk and failed, and one where you took a risk and succeeded. What was the difference?

Look for: risk-taking ability and tolerance, self-awareness, honesty, conceptual thinking.

5. Tell me about one of your proudest moments at work.

Look for: drive, personal motivators, preferred work style (team builder, solo contributor, etc.)

6. What do you want for your career two jobs from now, and how does this position help you get there?

Look for: initiative, long-term thinking, self-awareness, personal motivators, professional development expectations.

…And Now Questions for References

Now that you have a bevy of information from the candidate, you need to check it against the person’s references. I am stunned at how often hiring managers skip reference checks or delegate them to HR to cover basic employment history questions. This is one of your best sources of information! Off-the-record references are generally the most revealing, but you can still get solid information from the ones the candidate provides. Yes, references are primed to say positive things about the candidate. Still, few people will risk their professional reputations by being overtly deceptive. If you want honest answers then try these pointed questions:

1. How would you rate the candidate on a scale of 1-10? What would they have to do to be rated a [+1 from the ranking given]?

2. What kind of situation would you not hesitate to put the candidate in? What kind of situation would give you pause?

3. Provide an example of how the candidate raises the bar for herself and for those around her.

4. If you could create the perfect work environment for the candidate, what would it look like?

5. What kind of development plan was communicated to the candidate, and how did he respond?

6. Would you rehire the candidate?

Hope these questions can add to your own list. Have any favorite interview questions to share?

If I get enough great questions, I’ll write a follow up and we’ll pay it forward.

Monday, August 8, 2011

Some Professional Etiquette Tips You've Probably Never Heard Before

It's no secret that personal branding is becoming essential to succeed in the corporate world, and one of the best ways to create a positive personal brand is to practice great professional etiquette.

I recently attended a talk given by one of the etiquette coaches for JP Morgan Chase and was inspired by some of the counter-intuitive social rules he shared, so I embarked on a search for other possible faux pas most people commit every day without realizing it.

Here are some of the most obscure American professional etiquette tips I could find that Millennials can use to impress their co-workers, or maybe even their bosses.

After You?

Men are accustomed to opening doors for women, so it's no wonder the most confusing etiquette rule has to do with revolving doors.

Rule #1 – If you can't open it, she doesn't go first. In a formal business setting, women are wearing heels and will have more difficulty pushing a heavy revolving door. With revolving doors, it's polite for the men to go first and allow the women to "glide" through the door behind them. Chivalrous too.

Drink Classy, Drive Classy

When it comes to client dinners, it's always best to identify all your dishes and utensils lest you drink out of someone else's glass. An easy way to remember how to dine with class is keeping BMW in mind.

Rule #2 – Not just a luxury car brand, BMW also stands for "Bread, Meal, Water/Wine." Looking down, Bread is on your left, Meal plate in the middle, and Water and Wine glasses on your right.

No Wining

Rule #3 – The wine ritual is silly at best, but still must be exercised when entertaining clients. In case you need a refresher…

The client always chooses the wine and you order it no matter what. The wine guy brings you a glass and pours you a few sips, which you happily drink. No matter how it tastes, you never send the wine back. You then drink one and only one glass over dinner, no matter how thirsty that plant next to your seat looks.

Business Cards Are Meant To Be Admired

When you want someone's business card, it is best to offer yours first, rather than ask them for theirs.

Rule #4 -Business cards are exchanged, not given. Upon receiving a business card, you should take a second to admire it and compliment the design. If that person has one of those dull corporate cards with no pictures on it, pick one thing to make a comment on instead. Example: "Oh, you work on Upper Wacker… I recently had dinner at a great restaurant in that area." But only say that if you actually did, or you'll be embarrassed when they ask a follow-up question.

Where's the Keg?

Ladies – though we are in the 21st century, it is still unfeminine to carry a beer around at a professional event with food and drinks.

Rule #5 – Just like accessorizing, a woman must drink appropriately for her age. If you insist on that cool, refreshing taste you learned to love in college, order a Light and ask the bartender to pour it in a wine glass for you. No one will be the wiser, as long as that once-charming belching habit you perfected at frat parties doesn't showcase during the event.

Last In, First Out

Rule #6 – When traveling with executives from your department, always let the person with the most seniority get in the taxi last. Because he or she is the busiest and most important, he should get out first when arriving at the destination.

The Elevator Shuffle

If you live or work in a building with a busy elevator, you have certainly taken part in the elevator shuffle, that awkward dance everyone performs at each level to let people on and off.

Rule #7 – The elevator shuffle has steps just like any other dance. Follow them or be accused of having two left feet:

  • Always let other passengers off before boarding. This requires you to stand about 3 feet away from the door as it opens, and preferably not directly in front of it.
  • The person closest to the door enters first. "Ladies first" does not apply and tends to delay the process. Men, if this makes you uncomfortable, stand further back than the ladies while waiting.
  • If you are one of the first in the elevator, choose your floor quickly and move to the back of the elevator to let more people board. Don't be a button hog. If you board and can't reach the buttons, politely ask the person closest to choose your floor for you.
  • Don't worry about order. Within three floor stops everyone will be where they need to be. If you are getting off at one of the lower floors and there are people in front of you, politely say "excuse me." It is always appropriate to get off the elevator to let someone out, then re-board.
  • No talking in the elevator. I guarantee your elevator partners would agree your conversation can wait until you reach your floor. Besides, the elevator music is meant to be enjoyed, not talked over.
  • A full elevator is a full elevator. Know when to wait for the next one to come around.
What do you think of these professional etiquette tips? Are there any other tips you have come across that are not as well-known? Please share in the comments section!

Friday, August 5, 2011

Why should I hire you?

Points to remember before you attend this interview question:

  • Assume, now you are sitting in front of the HR manager.
  • Take the initiative to attend this question and tell your real answers.

Answer: Don't start your answer in 'Because',instead, try to relate first what you can do for the company. or if your a new graduate you should first say that you may not contribute a lot "but" one thing you can promise is to share your knowledge and skills that you've learned from your university and as long as the company provides training, you can continue to learned and make a significant contribution.

That's all... no messy answers to tell.

Answer 2:
I believe I have the capacity to contribute significantly to the growth of this company. This I believe can be achieved by working in accordance with the company's vision and objective. If I am employed here I would successfully apply newly acquired skills, readily become a team player and adhere to company's policies on work ethics and standard so that the company can be counted as one of the best in the industry; not forgetting that I would also love to be trained and developed into becoming a more successful.

Please share your answers....

18 Tips to Ace Your Job Interview

Finding a job in today’s economy is difficult. Simply searching for a job opportunity is tough enough. Throw in the dreaded job interview and difficult becomes downright stressful. However, it is possible to alleviate some of the stress. Here are 18 tips to help you ace your job interview.

Know Where You Are Going

A few days before your interview, make sure to get directions to your interview location online. If the directions are confusing or you aren’t familiar with the location, take time to do a drive by so that on the day of your interview you don’t get lost.

Call to Confirm

The day before your interview, call whoever scheduled your interview to confirm the day and time. By making a quick “I just wanted to confirm our 12pm interview time tomorrow” call, you will show that you are organized and respect the interviewer’s time.


Before your interview, make sure your hygiene is up to par. For men, this means making sure your hair is in control and that you are clean-shaven. For women, this means making sure to put on a little bit of makeup and doing your hair.

Review Your Resume

The night before your interview, go back over your resume to make sure you have everything on it that best highlights your skills and accomplishments as they relate to the position you are applying for. Make sure you know your major talking points for the interview so that you are adequately prepared.

Research the Company

Take the time to research the company you are interviewing with. Know what they do, their mission statement, any major events in the company’s history, and any other relevant information. By showing that you know about the company, you will convey an interest that the interviewer will appreciate.

Research Your Interviewers

When researching the company, also be sure to do a little research on anyone who will be interviewing you. By knowing their role in the company and any major professional accomplishments they have, you will demonstrate that you care not just about the company but about the employees and that you will be a great coworker.

Dress the Part

If you want the part, you have to look the part. Figure out the kind of culture the company has, then dress a level up. By doing this, you will demonstrate a level of professionalism that will be looked upon favorably.

Drive Safely

Your interview starts as soon as you enter the parking lot and doesn’t end until you leave the parking lot. Be sure to be a good driver when driving. Reckless driving will label you as an irresponsible liability the company doesn’t need.

Be Early

Whatever you do, do not be late. Show up early to demonstrate that you are responsible and appreciative of the interviewer’s time. Even showing up on time doesn’t cut it as that will simply show you will do the bare minimum to get by. Employers want employees who will go above and beyond.

Turn Your Cell Phone Off

One major interview faux pas is to have your phone ring during an interview. Make sure your cell phone is off or on silent during an interview. Or better yet, just leave it in the car.

Bring Multiple Copies of Your Resume

If you were giving a presentation during a company meeting that required a handout you would make sure you had made enough copies for everyone in the meeting, right? Well, chances are you will have multiple people interviewing you, so be prepared and respectful of each interviewer by bringing a copy of your resume for each of them.

Watch Your Nonverbals

Be sure to make good eye contact, give each interview a solid handshake, and not fiddle with a pen. Your nonverbal cues are very important in an interview, so do your best to not just talk confidently, but act confident too.

Have an Elevator Speech Prepared

Most of the time, the first question you will be asked is, “tell me about yourself.” Make sure you are ready for this question by having a brief, 30-second elevator speech ready to go that highlights your job history and accomplishments as well as what you are looking for in your career. Memorize the speech by heart and learn how to deliver your pitch with charm and confidence.

Be Prepared for Certain Questions

Inevitably you will be asked questions along the lines of “what is your greatest weakness,” “why do you want to work here,” and “how does your current skill set fit with this position.” Be sure you know how to answer these questions and any other relevant questions before your interview so you don’t get caught off guard.

Stay Positive

We have all had jobs we hated, worked on projects that were difficult, and had bosses we butted heads with. You will probably be asked about difficult situations in previous positions, so be sure to stay positive about those situations by highlighting your success in that situation as well as anything beneficial you learned from it.

Have Questions

At the end of your interview, you will be asked if you have any questions for the interviewer. Have questions prepared to ask each interviewer. For example, you could ask, “What is your favorite part of your job?” By coming prepared with questions for your interviewers, it shows that you are prepared and have interest in the company.

Take Notes

During your interview, be sure you have a notepad with you so you can take notes when the interviewers answer your questions or give you more information about the job and company. Just make sure you continue to make eye contact with the interviewer and not simply writing frantically on your notepad.

Follow Up

At the end of the interview, get business cards from everyone who interviewed you and send them a thank you note or email within 24 hours. Doing this demonstrates that you are appreciative of their time.

Difference Between Training and Development

Training vs Development

Training and development are closely interrelated terms that aim to help in achieving the objectives of the company while at the tame time increasing the efficiency and productivity of the employees. Though similar in a broader sense, there are many differences between training and development that will be highlighted in this article.

Training of a new employee is an integral part of his induction and orientation. Training is imparted so that he understands his roles and responsibilities and learns to perform the tasks entrusted to him with ease and with efficiency. It is only after a brief training period that a new employee is able to perform his job at a satisfactory level. Training makes an employee more productive for the organization and is thus concerned with his immediate improvement.

Development of an employee is an ongoing process which continues well beyond training. The focus of development process is the person himself where the focus of training is the organization. Development concerns with making the employee efficient enough to handle critical situations in future. So while training concentrates on short term needs of the organization, development looks after long term goals of the organization.

Training often takes place in groups, and is an event that is variously called as workshops and seminars. However, training can also be one on one when a supervisor instructs a new employee on a machine. Sometimes a manager deliberately pairs up a new employee with an experienced one. This is done to make the new employee learn to do things correctly. This can be termed as employee development. Sometimes, a manager may entrust an employee the job that may not be a part of his duty but plays a part in his development.

Sometimes, development refers to techniques such as stress management, breathing exercises through Yoga and meditation that are not directly related with the production process of a company but play an important part in the development of the employee.

It is clear then that it is easy to see the tangible effects of a training program but difficult to quantify the benefits accruing to the company through employee development though it really helps employees to grow on a personal level.

Why Employee Background Screening?

Today, Employee Background Screening has become the most important part of hiring.

No matter what the size of your business is, employee screening is very important. The company in this case will get to know the applicants more and see if they fit the job description they are applying for. This process usually begins with the company's HR personnel assigned going over the applicant's resume to see if the information contained within is correct. It will then move on to validating the applicant's information to see if there are any contradictions and the HR personnel will further determine if the applicant can be a valuable addition to their workforce.

The process of employment ranges from medical, background checks and psychometric testing. Some open positions in the company allow applicants to practice answering the required tests.Since it is the only trusted way for the human resource manager or personnel to determine and assess the applicant vying for the position, screening is a most important of any job hiring process.

Getting to know the probable people who will be part of your workforce is quite logically necessary. Allowing the company to select those candidates who perform well in the tests is only made possible by the screening process. Everytime companies hire new employees, they are expecting to land the most competent of them out there who would complement the revenues or increase the income of the company. The employment screening process, aside from selecting skillful workers, can detect if the candidate is both physically and mentally fit to be part of their workforce.

It has become a common practice of employers nowadays to acknowledge an employee's ability to function well in a job in the right place and time and with a healthy stae of mind, as well as the value of his diligence. Thus, employee screening allows the company to really get into the bare essence of what a prospective employee can offer them and help them determine the influence he may have on the company's goal.

There are other things to consider as well when the company's HRD personnel conduct employment screening and one of the important ones is legal procedures. You have to remember that the employee screening process involves digging up sometimes very personal information about the applicant.

A good and reliable source, like third party investigative bodies, of information is needed to verify the validity of the applicant's presented data and background checks or screening simply wouldn't be effective if this source was limited in any way. In order for the HRD of the company to gain access to certain restricted information like school records or previous job employment records, they sometimes have to ask the applicant to sign an authorization document. This only happens when there is a non-disclosure contract between the applicant and his previous employer exists and the prospective employer needs to know more about the applicant. As for school records, the institution may have more requirements aside from the authorization document that the prospective employer has to comply with before it is granted access.

You can ask us if you have any query related Employee Background Screening.
mail us at info@vfacts.in

Sunday, July 24, 2011

Business Ethics

Business ethics is the behavior that a business adheres to in its daily dealings with the world. The ethics of a particular business can be diverse. They apply not only to how the business interacts with the world at large, but also to their one-on-one dealings with a single customer.

Many businesses have gained a bad reputation just by being in business. To some people, businesses are interested in making money, and that is the bottom line. It could be called capitalism in its purest form. Making money is not wrong in itself. It is the manner in which some businesses conduct themselves that brings up the question of ethical behavior.

Good business ethics should be a part of every business. There are many factors to consider. When a company does business with another that is considered unethical, does this make the first company unethical by association? Some people would say yes, the first business has a responsibility and it is now a link in the chain of unethical businesses.

Many global businesses, including most of the major brands that the public use, can be seen not to think too highly of good business ethics. Many major brands have been fined millions for breaking ethical business laws. Money is the major deciding factor.

If a company does not adhere to business ethics and breaks the laws, they usually end up being fined. Many companies have broken anti-trust, ethical and environmental laws and received fines worth millions. The problem is that the amount of money these companies are making outweighs the fines applied. Billion dollar profits blind the companies to their lack of business ethics, and the dollar sign wins.

A business may be a multi-million seller, but does it use good business ethics and do people care? There are popular soft drinks and fast food restaurants that have been fined time and time again for unethical behavior. Business ethics should eliminate exploitation, from the sweat shop children who are making sneakers to the coffee serving staff who are being ripped off in wages. Business ethics can be applied to everything from the trees cut down to make the paper that a business sells to the ramifications of importing coffee from certain countries.

In the end, it may be up to the public to make sure that a company adheres to correct business ethics. If the company is making large amounts of money, they may not wish to pay too close attention to their ethical behavior. There are many companies that pride themselves in their correct business ethics, but in this competitive world, they are becoming very few and far between.

Leadership Values and Ethics - Secrets of Leadership Success

Leaders know what they value. They also recognize the importance of ethical behavior. The best leaders exhibit both their values and their ethics in their leadership style and actions. Your leadership ethics and values should be visible because you live them in your actions every single day.

A lack of trust is a problem in many workplaces. If leaders never identified their values in these workplaces, the mistrust is understandable. People don't know what they can expect. If leaders have identified and shared their values, living the values daily, visibly will create trust. To say one sentiment and to do another will damage trust - possibly forever. In Trust Rules: The Most Important Secret, three constructs of trust are explored. Dr. Duane C. Tway calls trust a construct because it is "constructed" of these three components: “the capacity for trusting, the perception of competence, and the perception of intentions.”

Workplace ethics take the same route. If the organization's leadership has a code of conduct and ethical expectations, they become an organization joke if the leaders fail to live up to their published code. Leaders that exhibit ethical behavior powerfully influence the actions of others.

Choose Your Leadership Values

The following are examples of values. You might use these as the starting point for discussing values within your organization:

ambition, competency, individuality, equality, integrity, service, responsibility, accuracy, respect, dedication, diversity, improvement, enjoyment/fun, loyalty, credibility, honesty, innovativeness, teamwork, excellence, accountability, empowerment, quality, efficiency, dignity, collaboration, stewardship, empathy, accomplishment, courage, wisdom, independence, security, challenge, influence, learning, compassion, friendliness, discipline/order, generosity, persistency,optimism, dependability, flexibility

As a leader, choose the values and the ethics that are most important to you, the values and ethics you believe in and that define your character. Then live them visibly every day at work. Living your values is one of the most powerful tools available to you to help you lead and influence others. Don't waste your best opportunity.

Characteristics of a Successful Leadership Style

Much is written about what makes successful leaders. I will focus on the characteristics, traits and actions that, I believe, are key.

  • Choose to lead.

  • Be the person others choose to follow.

  • Provide vision for the future.

  • Provide inspiration.

  • Make other people feel important and appreciated.

  • Live your values. Behave ethically.

  • Set the pace through your expectations and example.

  • Establish an environment of continuous improvement.

  • Provide opportunities for people to grow, both personally and professionally.

  • Care and act with compassion.

The Key Role of HR in Organizational Ethics

What is important to discuss today is how research informs us about the pivotal role human resource professionals can and should play in ethics management. Research suggests that successful ethics management depends less on formal ethics programs and more on employees' fairness perceptions, ethical leadership at all levels, and the alignment of multiple formal and informal cultural systems to support ethical conduct. To the extent that HR systems invoke fairness evaluations, HR managers design leadership training, and HR systems help to create and maintain organizational culture, HR professionals must play a key role in ethics management.

Research has found that employees' perceptions of fairness are equally or more important than other factors in terms of their influence on ethics-related outcomes. Fair treatment is so important because employees who perceive unfair treatment will rebalance the scales of justice by harming the organization. Employees who perceive fair treatment, on the other hand, will reciprocate by going above and beyond the call of duty to help management (by reporting ethical problems, for example). To ensure that employees feel they are treated fairly, it is important to design HR systems and interventions with perceived fairness as a key goal, with an emphasis on procedural (fair decision making procedures) and interaction (fair interpersonal treatment) fairness. Employees' perceptions of fair treatment should be monitored regularly via employee surveys, and changes should be made based upon the results.

It is also important for HR managers to work with the ethics/compliance office to follow up on employees' ethics concerns because a large percentage of reported concerns are fairness and therefore HR system-related. Most employees equate ethics and fairness; for them, there is no bright line between the ethics and HR offices.

Ethical leadership is vital to creating an ethical workforce. It is a myth that employees are fully formed moral agents who can 'lead themselves' when it comes to ethics. Research indicates that most employees look outside themselves to significant others for guidance in ethical dilemma situations. If this leadership and guidance is not provided by the leader of the organization, employees will seek it elsewhere, most likely from their peers.

According to research on ethical leadership, an ethical leader is a leader who cares, listens to what employees have to say, and has the best interests of employees in mind. In addition, an ethical leader communicates an ethics and values message. When making decisions, he/she asks "what is the right thing to do?" An ethical leader also role models ethical conduct and conducts his/her personal life in an ethical manner. This role model is trusted by employees and sets an example of how to do things the right way in terms of ethics. An ethical leader holds everyone accountable, and defines success not just by results but also by the way they are obtained

It is important that HR managers design performance management, career development, and training systems that: 1. Hold leaders accountable for the ethical dimension of their leadership; 2. Identify ethical leaders and rely on them for role modeling and mentoring others; 3. Incorporate the ethical dimension of leadership into all leadership training and development programs.


HR systems are key to the development and maintenance of ethical culture. One of the steps HR managers can take is to focus on how ethics and values fit into the design of key systems such as performance management and reward systems. HR managers can integrate accountability for ethics and values into performance management systems so that implementing ethical values is weighted substantially in promotion and compensation decisions (at least as much as bottom line results). Additionally, HR managers can focus on reward systems by rewarding 'exemplary' ethical behavior. To focus on discipline, unethical conduct must be disciplined consistently and at high levels, to send a powerful signal that management means what it says about ethics. Finally, effective ethics management requires regular assessment of the ethical culture. Overall, HR and ethics managers must focus on how cultural systems fit together or align in support of ethical conduct, a common goal.

Friday, July 22, 2011

Job Interview Flowchart

Click on the flow chart to view it full

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Freshers Resume - Some Tips

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Freshers Resume for Technical Jobs

The ideal freshers resumes for technical jobs have normal beginnings where the name and contact details of the candidates are mentioned. They also state the career objectives right at the beginning after which the educational qualifications of the candidates are stated. An important part of these freshers resumes is the computer skills of the applicants. They also should state all their educational achievements and also provide complete details of the various academic projects they have participated in.

Freshers Resume for Information Technology Jobs

The best freshers resumes for the jobs in the information technology sector have the name and contact details of the applicants right at the start. They should also state the objective of their careers immediately afterwards, which should be followed by their educational qualifications. They should also mention the various details of their software or hardware capabilities. They also need to mention all the achievements of their academic lives in their resumes. They should provide complete description of all the academic projects they have been involved in and mention the extracurricular activities they are good at. Besides, these curriculum vitae should also include the personal capabilities of the candidates.

Freshers Resume for Technological Jobs

The most preferred freshers resumes for technological jobs should start off with the educational details of the candidates. Then the candidates should furnish their project work details as well as work experience. They should also provide details regarding their computer capabilities and mention the publications that have been penned by them. If the candidate has been awarded in his or her career details regarding the same should be furnished as well. Their references should be mentioned in the resumes as well.

Fresher Cover Letters

The fresher cover letters are important in this day of online job sites where the employers look at resumes on these sites only. These should ideally start with a respectful address, after which the candidates should in brief say some thing about themselves like his educational qualification and marks secured for example. The main part of the cover letter includes the various objectives of the particular applicants as well as their usefulness in various parts of the particular job.

Interview tips for Freshers

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About Interview Tips for Freshers

The interview tips for freshers are basically some suggestions and advices that are provided to the job seekers who are going to appear for an interview for the first time in their professional lives. These suggestions are nowadays available on the internet.

Importance of Interview Tips for Freshers

The job interviews are of utmost importance for the job aspirants, especially if they are taking their first steps in this regard. A good interview can make or break the confidence of the job seeker and this is where the good suggestions come in handy.

Interview Tips for Freshers before Interview

One of the first things a fresher should do before an interview is to do extensive research of the company. The freshers should also be punctual and reach, preferably, before time for the interview. This always makes a good impression on the minds of the interviewers. It is also advisable that the job aspirants practice their interviews time and again before appearing for the actual one.

Interview Tips for Freshers during Interview

During the interview the job seekers should put up a smiling face as employers always like people with vibrant personalities. They should also shake the hands of the interviewers in a firm way. They should also talk eye to eye with the interviewers. They should speak clearly as any way else would show the interviewer that the interviewee is lacking in confidence. They should also be responsive to the interviewers. They need to avoid being overzealous with their answers, which should be precise and delivered only when a question has been asked. The application forms should be completed properly. The job seeker should also ask some questions to the interviewer and then thank that individual when the process comes to a close.

Things to Avoid

The freshers should refrain from being dishonest about themselves in the interviews. They should also not be chewing gums when they give an interview. Even if the interviewer offers them a cigarette they should be refusing it. They should be confident with their answers and should not say no to a job that is offered to them.

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Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Thank you Letter Format after a Job Interview

When you write a thank you letter after a job interview, it's important to include information on why you are a strong candidate for the position.

Your thank you letter is an opportunity to reinforce your candidacy for the job as well as to show your appreciation for the interview. Here's how to format a thank you letter, so you make the best impression.

Contact Information: (Your contact information)
Your Name
Your Address
Your City, State, Zip Code
Your Phone Number
Your Email Address


Contact Information: (The person you are writing to)
City, State, Zip Code


Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name:

Body of Thank You Letter:

When writing a thank you letter, keep your letter simple and focused. Single space your letter and leave a space between each paragraph. Left justify your thank you letter. Use a plain font like Arial, Times New Roman, or Verdana. Select a font size of 10 or 12 points.

The first paragraph of your letter should thank the hiring manager for taking the time to interview you.

The second paragraph of your thank you letter should include the reasons why you are a strong candidate for the position. List specific skills that relate to the job you interviewed for.

If there is information about your qualifications that you wish you had mentioned during the interview, but didn't get a chance to discuss, use the next paragraph to explain.

In your closing paragraph, reiterate your appreciation for being considered for the job and let the hiring manager know you are looking forward to hearing from him or her soon.

Leave a blank line after the salutation, between each paragraph, and before the closing.


Best Regards,


Handwritten Signature (for a mailed letter)

Typed Signature

Email Thank You Messages and Handwritten Thank You Notes

When the company is making a hiring decision quickly, it's appropriate to send an email thank you message. That way you'll be sure the hiring manager gets it in a timely manner. Handwritten thank you notes are also an option, when time permits.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

The Interpersonal Communication Skills

Ability to ask the questions and listen are vital to the good interpersonal skills. In fact the empathetic listening is a number one skill which can help to build the relationships.

Ten Tips for Good Interpersonal Skills


Listen to the person first. Communication is the two-way process; getting all your message across depends on understanding a other person.

Be interested in people you will be communicating with. Remember that the people are more attracted towards those who have interest in them, and therefore will pay more attention to what they will say.

Relax. The bad body language like hunched shoulders, fidgeting, the toe-tapping or the hair-twiddling all give a game away.

Smile and use the eye contact. It is a most positive signal which you can give.

Ask the questions. It is great way to show the people that you really are interested in them.

If the other person has different point of view towards you find out why they have such point of view. More you understand reasons behind their thinking more you will be able to understand their point of view or can help them understand your point of view.

Be assertive. so that we can try to value their input as your own inputs. Do not be pushy and do not be a pushover. Try for a right balance.

When you will be speaking try to be enthusiastic in appropriate context. Use voice and the body language to show this.

Immediately don't try to latch to something which someone has just now said ... "oh yes it happened to me" and immediately go on and telling your own story. Make sure that you ask questions about them first and then be careful while telling your story so as not to sound like a competition.

Learn from the interactions. If you have a good conversation with someone try to think why it all went well and remember key points for the next time. If it did not go well - again try and learn something out of it.

Six Tips for More Effective Business Communication

The Internet has made it both easier and more difficult for people to communicate. It is now easier than ever to send written correspondence; all it takes is the click of a button. But many people would rather send off a quick email than pick up the phone, which means more people than ever are putting even their quick, casual business communication in writing. If writing is not your strong point, you may not be communicating with coworkers, clients, and partners as effectively as you could be. Here are six tips to make your business communication skills better.

Never hit the send button right after writing. Even if you are not writing an emotionally charged email, hitting send too fast can hurt you. You might have sounded a little more harsh than you meant to, or you might not have written as clearly as you could have. Either way, give it an hour or two and come back to it with fresh eyes before sending. Often you are too close to the material just after you have written it to spot flaws in your communication.

Tone it down. You may not mean to come off harshly, but people are always taking your emails and memos the wrong way. If this happens to you, you may not realize how harsh you sound in your writing. Sometimes when people read something negative, it blocks them from absorbing your entire message. Before sending out your email, read it over carefully to make sure your message is not too negative.

Write in Microsoft Word first. Microsoft Word has the Spell Check feature, and your email probably does not. The feature does not catch every mistake, but it may help you spot some typos that you otherwise would have missed. If you have difficulty with spelling, write your communications in Microsoft Word first to take advantage of its Spell Check feature.

Break it up. People have difficulty absorbing long unbroken blocks of text. To make your emails and other communications more reader-friendly, break them up into shorter paragraphs, each containing a single main idea. This will make it easier for readers to understand your point.

Don't be too casual. The Internet has given rise to a lot of casual acronyms and shortenings of words, such as your for your and u for you. Avoid these at all costs in business communications. They are too casual for a business environment.

Consider your audience. Are you writing to a marketing exec, a programmer or other technical employee, or the company president? Are you writing to one specific person or to a large audience with different levels of technical understanding? You should always tailor your communications to your audience. If you are writing to employees who are not technical, avoid specialized technical words and break concepts down so that laypeople can understand.

Every email and communication you send does not have to be a work of genius. But it does need to be easily understood. Use these tips, and your business communication is sure to improve.

by Jennifer Williamson

Jennifer Williamson runs a successful article writing business as a freelance writer in southern Pennsylvania.

Business Communication Etiquette

Many offices adopted a "business casual" attire in the workplace in the 1990's. This meant a more relaxed attire - no more suits, ties, panty hose, and so forth. Unfortunately, many business people have also adopted a business casual attitude in their business communications.

Everyone could benefit from a lesson (or two!) in "netiquette" - or how to communicate professionally in a business environment using tools such as e-mail, instant message programs, text messaging and so forth.

Technology has made communicating a very different medium than it was just five years ago. We're all so busy that we dash off quick messages, sometimes totally forgetting to use proper grammar, punctuation and spelling. While this is acceptable for friends, it is not acceptable in a professional environment.

E-mail is often the first communication that one has with a potential client or business associate. It is still very true that first impressions are the most important. If you had a meeting with someone whose clothes were dirty and torn, had messy hair and provided you with inaccurate product information, you probably wouldn't end up doing business with them. Yet, every day, this same "unkemptness" appears in business communications.

Take this example: "Per ur request, i'm sending our current info. IMHO, we have the best produce in the mkt." Gee, I'd really want to do business with this person, wouldn't you - and are they selling fruits and vegetables, or did they misspell product?

Spelling, punctuation and grammar do count. Most e-mail programs have the ability to check these items. The little squiggly underlines are not there for fun! They are pointing out an error. Don't ignore them. Also, don't be in such a hurry to send your message that you don't quickly re-read it. (Don't get me started on people who send text messages while driving!) Once you hit "send" there is no way to correct your message, so take the time to make sure it's truly what you want to say before sending it.

While you may think you're being funny, remember that there is absolutely no way for the recipient to know the "tone" that you intended for your message. You may think you're being brief and succinct, while they will think you're being curt and impolite. Of course, many people now use "emoticons" to try to convey emotions. Sending a smiley or winking face is OK when the recipient is your friend; however, it's not OK when you're communicating with a CEO. After all, you wouldn't send a hand-written note to a CEO with all of the "dots" in your "i's" as smiley faces or hearts, would you?

The only thing worse than emoticons is "Internet slang" - that is, the abbreviation of many words. While practically everyone knows what "FYI" means, what about AFAIK and NOOB? Just as you shouldn't use an acronym unless you are absolutely certain the recipient knows what you mean, don't use Internet slang either.

When we communicated with our friends when we were young, we wrote: "How are you? I am fine." We've all forgotten this basic politeness. While we don't want to be this simple, it is much better to say: "It was a pleasure meeting you yesterday. I enjoyed learning about your business and as you requested, I am sending you our current product information. I'll follow-up with you in a couple of days to answer any questions you may have." Unfortunately, in our fast-paced business world, the more typical communication is along the lines of: "Here's the info. Call me if you have questions." While both say essentially the same thing, who would you rather do business with - especially if this was the first communication you had with the person about their company and their product?

When you really want to impress someone, the best way is to take the time to write them an actual note or letter that you put in an envelope, put a stamp on and mail, rather than dashing off a quick e-mail. It doesn't matter that your penmanship may not be perfect. What's important is that you actually took the time to send them a personalized communication. We all loved getting cards and letters when we were young and I believe the same is true today. Aside from anything else, a personal communication sets you apart from everyone else who just sends e-mails and quick text messages!

No matter what form of communication you use, remember that when you take the time to make sure it is correct, you are showing a certain level of respect for your recipient. How important are they to you - and your business?

FYI - AFAIK means "as far as I know" and NOOB means "someone who is new."

by Deborah Krier

Deborah Krier, president and founder of Wise Women Communications, is a marketing and public relations professional with experience in media and public relations, internal and external communication, crisis management, integrated marketing campaigns, brand management, event coordination, Web site design and development, and community relations. She managed corporate communications programs for the Denver site of ING Group, served as a media and communications coordinator for the Rocky Mountain Region of the American Cancer Society, served as the director of public relations and account manager for Linnell & Soreide Marketing Partners, a full-service marketing and advertising firm. In addition, she provided lobbying support at a state and local level for Corporate Advocates, a Denver-based firm. Deborah holds an MBA degree with an emphasis in marketing from the University of Colorado and an MS degree in communications management from Colorado State University.

JSP Interview Questions and Answers

What is a JSP and what is it used for?
Java Server Pages (JSP) is a platform independent presentation layer technology that comes with SUN s J2EE platform. JSPs are normal HTML pages with Java code pieces embedded in them. JSP pages are saved to *.jsp files. A JSP compiler is used in the background to generate a Servlet from the JSP page.

What is difference between custom JSP tags and beans?
Custom JSP tag is a tag you defined. You define how a tag, its attributes and its body are interpreted, and then group your tags into collections called tag libraries that can be used in any number of JSP files. To use custom JSP tags, you need to define three separate components:
1. the tag handler class that defines the tag\'s behavior
2. the tag library descriptor file that maps the XML element names to the tag implementations
3. the JSP file that uses the tag library
When the first two components are done, you can use the tag by using taglib directive:
<%@ taglib uri="xxx.tld" prefix="..." %>
Then you are ready to use the tags you defined. Let's say the tag prefix is test:
MyJSPTag or
JavaBeans are Java utility classes you defined. Beans have a standard format for Java classes. You use tags to declare a bean and use to set value of the bean class and use to get value of the bean class.

<%=identifier.getclassField() %>
Custom tags and beans accomplish the same goals -- encapsulating complex behavior into simple and accessible forms. There are several differences:
Custom tags can manipulate JSP content; beans cannot.
Complex operations can be reduced to a significantly simpler form with custom tags than with beans. Custom tags require quite a bit more work to set up than do beans.
Custom tags usually define relatively self-contained behavior, whereas beans are often defined in one servlet and used in a different servlet or JSP page.
Custom tags are available only in JSP 1.1 and later, but beans can be used in all JSP 1.x versions.

What are the two kinds of comments in JSP and what's the difference between them ?
<%-- JSP Comment --%>

What is JSP technology?

Java Server Page is a standard Java extension that is defined on top of the servlet Extensions. The goal of JSP is the simplified creation and management of dynamic Web pages. JSPs are secure, platform-independent, and best of all, make use of Java as a server-side scripting language.

What is JSP page?
A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static template data, which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML, SVG, WML, and XML, and JSP elements, which construct dynamic content.

What are the implicit objects?
Implicit objects are objects that are created by the web container and contain information related to a particular request, page, or application. They are:

How many JSP scripting elements and what are they?
There are three scripting language elements:

Why are JSP pages the preferred API for creating a web-based client program?
Because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems(applet does). Also, JSP pages enable cleaner and more module application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. This means personnel involved in web page design do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

Is JSP technology extensible?
YES. JSP technology is extensible through the development of custom actions, or tags, which are encapsulated in tag libraries.

Can we use the constructor, instead of init(), to initialize servlet?
Yes , of course you can use the constructor instead of init(). There’s nothing to stop you. But you shouldn’t. The original reason for init() was that ancient versions of Java couldn’t dynamically invoke constructors with arguments, so there was no way to give the constructur a ServletConfig. That no longer applies, but servlet containers still will only call your no-arg constructor. So you won’t have access to a ServletConfig or ServletContext.

How can a servlet refresh automatically if some new data has entered the database?
You can use a client-side Refresh or Server Push.

The code in a finally clause will never fail to execute, right?
Using System.exit(1); in try block will not allow finally code to execute.

How many messaging models do JMS provide for and what are they?
JMS provide for two messaging models, publish-and-subscribe and point-to-point queuing.

What information is needed to create a TCP Socket?
The Local Systems IP Address and Port Number. And the Remote System’s IPAddress and Port Number.

What Class.forName will do while loading drivers?
It is used to create an instance of a driver and register it with the DriverManager. When you have loaded a driver, it is available for making a connection with a DBMS.

How to Retrieve Warnings?
SQLWarning objects are a subclass of SQLException that deal with database access warnings. Warnings do not stop the execution of an application, as exceptions do; they simply alert the user that something did not happen as planned. A warning can be reported on a Connection object, a Statement object (including PreparedStatement and CallableStatement objects), or a ResultSet object. Each of these classes has a getWarnings method, which you must invoke in order to see the first warning reported on the calling object

SQLWarning warning = stmt.getWarnings();
if (warning != null)
while (warning != null)
System.out.println(\"Message: \" + warning.getMessage());
System.out.println(\"SQLState: \" + warning.getSQLState());
System.out.print(\"Vendor error code: \");
warning = warning.getNextWarning();

How many JSP scripting elements are there and what are they?
There are three scripting language elements: declarations, scriptlets, expressions.

In the Servlet 2.4 specification SingleThreadModel has been deprecated, why?

Because it is not practical to have such model. Whether you set isThreadSafe to true or false, you should take care of concurrent client requests to the JSP page by synchronizing access to any shared objects defined at the page level.

What are stored procedures? How is it useful?
A stored procedure is a set of statements/commands which reside in the database. The stored procedure is pre-compiled and saves the database the effort of parsing and compiling sql statements every time a query is run. Each database has its own stored procedure language, usually a variant of C with a SQL preproceesor. Newer versions of db’s support writing stored procedures in Java and Perl too. Before the advent of 3-tier/n-tier architecture it was pretty common for stored procs to implement the business logic( A lot of systems still do it). The biggest advantage is of course speed. Also certain kind of data manipulations are not achieved in SQL. Stored procs provide a mechanism to do these manipulations. Stored procs are also useful when you want to do Batch updates/exports/houseKeeping kind of stuff on the db. The overhead of a JDBC Connection may be significant in these cases.

How do I include static files within a JSP page?
Static resources should always be included using the JSP include directive. This way, the inclusion is performed just once during the translation phase. Do note that you should always supply a relative URL for the file attribute. Although you can also include static resources using the action, this is not advisable as the inclusion is then performed for each and every request.

Why does JComponent have add() and remove() methods but Component does not?
because JComponent is a subclass of Container, and can contain other components and jcomponents. How can I implement a thread-safe JSP page? - You can make your JSPs thread-safe by having them implement the SingleThreadModel interface. This is done by adding the directive <%@ page isThreadSafe="false" % > within your JSP page.

How do I prevent the output of my JSP or Servlet pages from being cached by the browser?
You will need to set the appropriate HTTP header attributes to prevent the dynamic content output by the JSP page from being cached by the browser. Just execute the following scriptlet at the beginning of your JSP pages to prevent them from being cached at the browser. You need both the statements to take care of some of the older browser versions.

How do you restrict page errors display in the JSP page?
You first set "Errorpage" attribute of PAGE directory to the name of the error page (ie Errorpage="error.jsp")in your jsp page .Then in the error jsp page set "isErrorpage=TRUE". When an error occur in your jsp page it will automatically call the error page.

How can I enable session tracking for JSP pages if the browser has disabled cookies?
We know that session tracking uses cookies by default to associate a session identifier with a unique user. If the browser does not support cookies, or if cookies are disabled, you can still enable session tracking using URL rewriting. URL rewriting essentially includes the session ID within the link itself as a name/value pair.
However, for this to be effective, you need to append the session ID for each and every link that is part of your servlet response. Adding the session ID to a link is greatly simplified by means of of a couple of methods: response.encodeURL() associates a session ID with a given URL, and if you are using redirection, response.encodeRedirectURL() can be used by giving the redirected URL as input.
Both encodeURL() and encodeRedirectedURL() first determine whether cookies are supported by the browser; if so, the input URL is returned unchanged since the session ID will be persisted as a cookie. Consider the following example, in which two JSP files, say hello1.jsp and hello2.jsp, interact with each other.
Basically, we create a new session within hello1.jsp and place an object within this session. The user can then traverse to hello2.jsp by clicking on the link present within the page.Within hello2.jsp, we simply extract the object that was earlier placed in the session and display its contents. Notice that we invoke the encodeURL() within hello1.jsp on the link used to invoke hello2.jsp; if cookies are disabled, the session ID is automatically appended to the URL, allowing hello2.jsp to still retrieve the session object. Try this example first with cookies enabled. Then disable cookie support, restart the brower, and try again. Each time you should see the maintenance of the session across pages.
Do note that to get this example to work with cookies disabled at the browser, your JSP engine has to support URL rewriting.
Integer i= (Integer )session.getValue("num");
out.println("Num value in session is "+i.intValue());

What JSP lifecycle methods can I override?
You cannot override the _jspService() method within a JSP page. You can however, override the jspInit() and jspDestroy() methods within a JSP page. jspInit() can be useful for allocating resources like database connections, network connections, and so forth for the JSP page. It is good programming practice to free any allocated resources within jspDestroy().
The jspInit() and jspDestroy() methods are each executed just once during the lifecycle of a JSP page and are typically declared as JSP declarations:

How do I perform browser redirection from a JSP page?
You can use the response implicit object to redirect the browser to a different resource, as:
You can also physically alter the Location HTTP header attribute, as shown below:
You can also use the:
Also note that you can only use this before any output has been sent to the client. I beleve this is the case with the response.sendRedirect() method as well. If you want to pass any paramateres then you can pass using >

How does JSP handle run-time exceptions?
You can use the errorPage attribute of the page directive to have uncaught runtime exceptions automatically forwarded to an error processing page.
For example:
redirects the browser to the JSP page error.jsp if an uncaught exception is encountered during request processing. Within error.jsp, if you indicate that it is an error-processing page, via the directive:
the Throwable object describing the exception may be accessed within the error page via the exception implicit object.
Note: You must always use a relative URL as the value for the errorPage attribute.

How do I use comments within a JSP page?
You can use "JSP-style" comments to selectively block out code while debugging or simply to comment your scriptlets. JSP comments are not visible at the client.
For example:
You can also use HTML-style comments anywhere within your JSP page. These comments are visible at the client. For example:
Of course, you can also use comments supported by your JSP scripting language within your scriptlets.

Is it possible to share an HttpSession between a JSP and EJB? What happens when I change a value in the HttpSession from inside an EJB?
You can pass the HttpSession as parameter to an EJB method, only if all objects in session are serializable. This has to be consider as "passed-by-value", that means that it's read-only in the EJB.
If anything is altered from inside the EJB, it won't be reflected back to the HttpSession of the Servlet Container.The "pass-byreference" can be used between EJBs Remote Interfaces, as they are remote references.
While it IS possible to pass an HttpSession as a parameter to an EJB object, it is considered to be "bad practice" in terms of object oriented design. This is because you are creating an unnecessary coupling between back-end objects (ejbs) and front-end objects (HttpSession). Create a higher-level of abstraction for your ejb's api. Rather than passing the whole, fat, HttpSession (which carries with it a bunch of http semantics), create a class that acts as a value object (or structure) that holds all the data you need to pass back and forth between front-end/back-end.
Consider the case where your ejb needs to support a non-http-based client. This higher level of abstraction will be flexible enough to support it.

How can I implement a thread-safe JSP page?
You can make your JSPs thread-safe by having them implement the SingleThreadModel interface. This is done by adding the directive <%@ page isThreadSafe="false" % > within your JSP page.

How can I declare methods within my JSP page?
You can declare methods for use within your JSP page as declarations. The methods can then be invoked within any other methods you declare, or within JSP scriptlets and expressions.
Do note that you do not have direct access to any of the JSP implicit objects like request, response, session and so forth from within JSP methods. However, you should be able to pass any of the implicit JSP variables as parameters to the methods you declare.
For example:
Another Example:
<%test(out);% >

Can I stop JSP execution while in the midst of processing a request?
Yes. Preemptive termination of request processing on an error condition is a good way to maximize the throughput of a high-volume JSP engine. The trick (assuming Java is your scripting language) is to use the return statement when you want to terminate further processing.

Can a JSP page process HTML FORM data?
Yes. However, unlike Servlet, you are not required to implement HTTP-protocol specific methods like doGet() or doPost() within your JSP page. You can obtain the data for the FORM input elements via the request implicit object within a scriptlet or expression as.

Is there a way to reference the "this" variable within a JSP page?
Yes, there is. Under JSP 1.0, the page implicit object is equivalent to "this", and returns a reference to the Servlet generated by the JSP page.

How do you pass control from one JSP page to another?
Use the following ways to pass control of a request from one servlet to another or one jsp to another.
The RequestDispatcher object ‘s forward method to pass the control.
The response.sendRedirect method

Is there a way I can set the inactivity lease period on a per-session basis?
Typically, a default inactivity lease period for all sessions is set within your JSPengine admin screen or associated properties file. However, if your JSP engine supports the Servlet 2.1 API, you can manage the inactivity lease period on a per-session basis.
This is done by invoking the HttpSession.setMaxInactiveInterval() method, right after the session has been created.

How does a servlet communicate with a JSP page?
The following code snippet shows how a servlet instantiates a bean and initializes it with FORM data posted by a browser. The bean is then placed into the request, and the call is then forwarded to the JSP page, Bean1.jsp, by means of a request dispatcher for downstream processing.
public void doPost (HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
try {
govi.FormBean f = new govi.FormBean();
String id = request.getParameter("id");

//use the id to compute
//additional bean properties like info
//maybe perform a db query, etc.
// . . .

("/jsp/Bean1.jsp").forward(request, response);
} catch (Exception ex) {
. . .

The JSP page Bean1.jsp can then process fBean, a
fter first extracting it from the default request
scope via the useBean action.

jsp:useBean id="fBean" class="govi.FormBean" scope="request"/ jsp:getProperty
name="fBean" property="name" / jsp:getProperty name="fBean" property="addr"
/ jsp:getProperty name="fBean" property="age" / jsp:getProperty name="fBean"
property="personalizationInfo" /

Can you make use of a ServletOutputStream object from within a JSP page?
No. You are supposed to make use of only a JSPWriter object (given to you in the form of the implicit object out) for replying to clients.
A JSPWriter can be viewed as a buffered version of the stream object returned by response.getWriter(), although from an implementational perspective, it is not.
A page author can always disable the default buffering for any page using a page directive as:

How do I include static files within a JSP page?
Static resources should always be included using the JSP include directive. This way, the inclusion is performed just once during the translation phase.
The following example shows the syntax:
< % @ include file="copyright.html" % >
Do note that you should always supply a relative URL for the file attribute. Although you can also include static resources using the action, this is not advisable as the inclusion is then performed for each and every request.
How do I have the JSP-generated servlet subclass my own custom servlet class, instead of the default? One should be very careful when having JSP pages extend custom servlet classes as opposed to the default one generated by the JSP engine. In doing so, you may lose out on any advanced optimization that may be provided by the JSPengine.
In any case, your new super class has to fulfill the contract with the JSP engine by: Implementing the HttpJspPage interface, if the protocol used is HTTP, or implementing JspPage otherwise Ensuring that all the methods in the Servlet interface are declared final.
Additionally, your servlet super class also needs to do the following:
The service() method has to invoke the _jspService() method
The init() method has to invoke the jspInit() method
The destroy() method has to invoke jspDestroy()
If any of the above conditions are not satisfied, the JSP engine may throw a translation error. Once the super class has been developed, you can have your JSP extend it as follows:

Can a JSP page instantiate a serialized bean?
No problem! The use Bean action specifies the beanName attribute, which can be used for indicating a serialized bean.
For example:
A couple of important points to note. Although you would have to name your serialized file "filename.ser", you only indicate "filename" as the value for the beanName attribute. Also, you will have to place your serialized file within the WEB-INFjspbeans directory for it to be located by the JSP engine.

What is JSP?
Let's consider the answer to that from two different perspectives: that of an HTML designer and that of a Java programmer.
If you are an HTML designer, you can look at JSP technology as extending HTML to provide you with the ability to seamlessly embed snippets of Java code within your HTML pages. These bits of Java code generate dynamic content, which is embedded within the other HTML/XML content you author. Even better, JSP technology provides the means by which programmers can create new HTML/XML tags and JavaBeans components, which provide new features for HTML designers without those designers needing to learn how to program.
Note: A common misconception is that Java code embedded in a JSP page is transmitted with the HTML and executed by the user agent (such as a browser). This is not the case. A JSP page is translated into a Java servlet and executed on the server. JSP statements embedded in the JSP page become part of the servlet generated from the JSP page. The resulting servlet is executed on the server. It is never visible to the user agent.
If you are a Java programmer, you can look at JSP technology as a new, higher-level means to writing servlets. Instead of directly writing servlet classes and then emitting HTML from your servlets, you write HTML pages with Java code embedded in them. The JSP environment takes your page and dynamically compiles it. Whenever a user agent requests that page from the Web server, the servlet that was generated from your JSP code is executed, and the results are returned to the user.

How do I mix JSP and SSI #include?
Answer 1
If you're just including raw HTML, use the #include directive as usual inside your .jsp file.
But it's a little trickier if you want the server to evaluate any JSP code that's inside the included file. If your data.inc file contains jsp code you will have to use
The is used for including non-JSP files.
Answer 2
If you're just including raw HTML, use the #include directive as usual inside your .jsp file.

But it's a little trickier if you want the server to evaluate any JSP code that's inside the included file. Ronel Sumibcay (ronel@LIVESOFTWARE.COM) says: If your data.inc file contains jsp code you will have to use
<%@ vinclude="data.inc" %>
The is used for including non-JSP files.

How do I mix JSP and SSI #include? What is the difference between include directive & jsp:include action?
Difference between include directive and
1. provides the benefits of automatic recompliation,smaller class size ,since the code corresponding to the included page is not present in the servlet for every included jsp page and option of specifying the additional request parameter.
2.The also supports the use of request time attributes values for dynamically specifying included page which directive does not.
3.the include directive can only incorporate contents from a static document.
4. can be used to include dynamically generated output e.g.. from servlets.
5.include directive offers the option of sharing local variables, better run time efficiency.
6.Because the include directive is processed during translation and compilation, it does not impose any restrictions on output buffering.

How do you prevent the Creation of a Session in a JSP Page and why? What is the difference between include directive & jsp:include action?
By default, a JSP page will automatically create a session for the request if one does not exist.
However, sessions consume resources and if it is not necessary to maintain a session, one should not be created. For example, a marketing campaign may suggest the reader visit a web page for more information. If it is anticipated that a lot of traffic will hit that page, you may want to optimize the load on the machine by not creating useless sessions.

How do I use a scriptlet to initialize a newly instantiated bean?
A jsp:useBean action may optionally have a body. If the body is specified, its contents will be automatically invoked when the specified bean is instantiated. Typically, the body will contain scriptlets or jsp:setProperty tags to initialize the newly instantiated bean, although you are not restricted to using those alone.
The following example shows the "today" property of the Foo bean initialized to the current date when it is instantiated. Note that here, we make use of a JSP expression within the jsp:setProperty action.
value=""/ >

How can I set a cookie and delete a cookie from within a JSP page?
A cookie, mycookie, can be deleted using the following scriptlet:

How do you connect to the database from JSP?
A Connection to a database can be established from a jsp page by writing the code to establish a connection using a jsp scriptlets.
Further then you can use the resultset object "res" to read data in the following way.

What is the page directive is used to prevent a JSP page from automatically creating a session?
<%@ page session="false">

How do you delete a Cookie within a JSP?
Cookie mycook = new Cookie("name","value");
Cookie killmycook = new Cookie("mycook","value");

Can we implement an interface in a JSP?

What is the difference between ServletContext and PageContext?
ServletContext: Gives the information about the container
PageContext: Gives the information about the Request

What is the difference in using request.getRequestDispatcher() and context.getRequestDispatcher()?
request.getRequestDispatcher(path): In order to create it we need to give the relative path of the resource context.getRequestDispatcher(path): In order to create it we need to give the absolute path of the resource.

How to pass information from JSP to included JSP?
Using <%jsp:param> tag.

How is JSP include directive different from JSP include action. ?
When a JSP include directive is used, the included file's code is added into the added JSP page at page translation time, this happens before the JSP page is translated into a servlet. While if any page is included using action tag, the page's output is returned back to the added page. This happens at runtime.

Can we override the jspInit(), _jspService() and jspDestroy() methods?
We can override jspinit() and jspDestroy() methods but not _jspService().

Why is _jspService() method starting with an '_' while other life cycle methods do not?
_jspService() method will be written by the container hence any methods which are not to be overridden by the end user are typically written starting with an '_'. This is the reason why we don't override _jspService() method in any JSP page.

What happens when a page is statically included in another JSP page?
An include directive tells the JSP engine to include the contents of another file (HTML, JSP, etc.) in the current page. This process of including a file is also called as static include.

A JSP page, include.jsp, has a instance variable "int a", now this page is statically included in another JSP page, index.jsp, which has a instance variable "int a" declared. What happens when the index.jsp page is requested by the client?
Compilation error, as two variables with same name can't be declared. This happens because, when a page is included statically, entire code of included page becomes part of the new page. at this time there are two declarations of variable 'a'. Hence compilation error.

Can you override jspInit() method? If yes, In which cases?
ye, we can. We do it usually when we need to initialize any members which are to be available for a servlet/JSP throughout its lifetime.

What is the difference between directive include and jsp include?
<%@ include> : Used to include static resources during translation time. : Used to include dynamic content or static content during runtime.

What is the difference between RequestDispatcher and sendRedirect?
RequestDispatcher: server-side redirect with request and response objects. sendRedirect : Client-side redirect with new request and response objects.

How does JSP handle runtime exceptions?
Using errorPage attribute of page directive and also we need to specify isErrorPage=true if the current page is intended to URL redirecting of a JSP.

How can my application get to know when a HttpSession is removed?
Define a Class HttpSessionNotifier which implements HttpSessionBindingListener and implement the functionality what you need in valueUnbound() method.
Create an instance of that class and put that instance in HttpSession.

What Class.forName will do while loading drivers?
It is used to create an instance of a driver and register it with the DriverManager. When you have loaded a driver, it is available for making a connection with a DBMS.

How to Retrieve Warnings?
SQLWarning objects are a subclass of SQLException that deal with database access warnings. Warnings do not stop the execution of an application, as exceptions do; they simply alert the user that something did not happen as planned. A warning can be reported on a Connection object, a Statement object (including PreparedStatement and CallableStatement objects), or a ResultSet object. Each of these classes has a getWarnings method, which you must invoke in order to see the first warning reported on the calling object

SQLWarning warning = stmt.getWarnings();
if (warning != null)
while (warning != null)
System.out.println(\"Message: \" + warning.getMessage());
System.out.println(\"SQLState: \" + warning.getSQLState());
System.out.print(\"Vendor error code: \");
warning = warning.getNextWarning();

How many JSP scripting elements are there and what are they?
There are three scripting language elements: declarations, scriptlets, expressions.

In the Servlet 2.4 specification SingleThreadModel has been deprecated, why?
Because it is not practical to have such model. Whether you set isThreadSafe to true or false, you should take care of concurrent client requests to the JSP page by synchronizing access to any shared objects defined at the page level.

Is JSP technology extensible?
YES. JSP technology is extensible through the development of custom actions, or tags, which are encapsulated in tag libraries.

Can we use the constructor, instead of init(), to initialize servlet?
Yes , of course you can use the constructor instead of init(). There’s nothing to stop you. But you shouldn’t. The original reason for init() was that ancient versions of Java couldn’t dynamically invoke constructors with arguments, so there was no way to give the constructur a ServletConfig. That no longer applies, but servlet containers still will only call your no-arg constructor. So you won’t have access to a ServletConfig or ServletContext.

How can a servlet refresh automatically if some new data has entered the database?
You can use a client-side Refresh or Server Push.

The code in a finally clause will never fail to execute, right?
Using System.exit(1); in try block will not allow finally code to execute.

How many messaging models do JMS provide for and what are they?
JMS provide for two messaging models, publish-and-subscribe and point-to-point queuing.

ASP Interview Questions and Answers

What is ASP?
ASP stands for Active Server Pages. It is a server side technology which is used to display dynamic content on web pages. For example you could write code that would give your visitors different information, different images or even a totally different page depending on what browser version they are using.

How can you disable the browser to view the code?
Writing codes within the Tag

What is a "Virtual Directory"?
Virtual directories are aliases for directory paths on the server. It allows moving files on the disk between different folders, drives or even servers without changing the structure of web pages. It avoids typing an extremely long URL each time to access an ASP page.

Give the comment Tags for the following?
VBScript : REM & ‘(apostrophe)
JavaScript : // (single line comment)
/* */ (Multi-line comments)

Which is the default Scripting Language of ASP (server-side)?


Which is the default Data types in VBScript?
Variant is the default data type in VBScript, which can store a value of any type.

What is a variable?
Variable is a memory location through which the actual values are stored/retrieved. Its value can be changed.

What is the maximum size of an array?
Up to 60 dimensions.

What is Query string collection?
This collection stores any values that are provided in the URL. This can be generated by three methods:
By clicking on an anchor tag
By sending a form to the server by the GET method
Through user-typed HTTP address

It allows you to extract data sent to the server using a GET request.

What are the attributes of the tags? What are their functions?
The two attributes are ACTION and METHOD
The ACTION gives the name of the ASP file that should be opened next by which this file can access the information given in the form The METHOD determines which of the two ways (POST or GET) the browser can send the information to the server

What are the methods in Session Object?
The Session Object has only one method, which is Abandon. It destroys all the objects stored in a Session Object and releases the server resources they occupied.

What is ServerVariables collection?
The ServerVariables collection holds the entire HTTP headers and also additional items of information about the server.

What is the difference between Querystring collection and Form collection?
The main difference is that the Querystring collection gets appended to a URL.

What is a Form collection?
The Form collection holds the values of the form elements submitted with the POST method. This is the only way to generate a Form collection.

What are the ASP Scripting Objects?
The Dictionary object, the FileSystemObject object, TextStream object.

What happens to a HTML page?
The browser makes a HTTP request; the server gives a HTTP response to the browser and the browser converts into a HTML page.

What happens to ASP pages?
The browser makes a HTTP request; the server does the processing and gives a HTML response to the browser.

How can you change the primary scripting language for a page?

What is application Object?
Shares information among users of an application. Gives a notification when an application starts or ends.

What is the difference between client-side script and server-side script?
Scripts executed only by the browser without contacting the server is called client-side script. It is browser dependent. The scripting code is visible to the user and hence not secure. Scripts executed by the web server and processed by the server is called server-side script.

What is the command to display characters to the HTML page?

Explain the POST & GET Method or Explain the difference between them?
The POST method generates a FORM collection, which is sent as a HTTP request body. All the values typed in the form will be stored in the FORM collection.
The GET method sends information by appending it to the URL (with a question mark) and stored as A Querystring collection. The Querystring collection is passed to the server as name/value pair.
The length of the URL should be less than 255 characters.

How many global.asa files can an Application have?

Only one global.asa file and it’s placed in the virtual directory’s root.

What are Scripting Objects?
Objects that can enhance the application are known as the Scripting Objects.

What is the Order of precedence for LOGICAL Operators ?

What is an Err Object?
Name it’s properties and methods.

What are LOCAL and GLOBAL variables?
Local variables lifetime ends when the Procedure ends. Global variables lifetime begins at the start of the script and ends at the end of the script and it can be used by any procedure within the script. Declaring a variable by using the keyword PRIVATE makes the variable global within the script, but if declared using PUBLIC, then all scripts can refer the variable.

Which is the default Scripting Language on the client side?

What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)?
It’s a method by which web pages can be built and generally used for formatting and linking text.

What is a Web Server?
It’s a Computer that provides Web services on the Internet or on a local Intranet. It is designed to locate, address and send out simple HTML pages to all other users who access these pages.

What is Session Object?
It stores information about a User’s session. Gives a notification when a user session begins or ends.

What is Server-Side includes?
It provides extra information by which it makes the site easier to manage. It can include text files using the #include statement, retrieve the size and last modification date of a file, defines how variables and error messages are displayed and inserts the values of HTTP variables in the page sent back to the browser.

What is a FileSystemObject object?
It provides access to the physical file system of the web server. It gets and manipulates information about all drives in a server, folders and sub-folders on a drive and files inside a folder.

What is a Scripting Language?
It permits to create more interactive Web Pages. Validation, formatting of web pages can be done. VBScript, JavaScript are some examples.

What is a Dictionary object?
It lets you store and retrieve information in a flexible data structure. Each value or information stored in a Dictionary is associated with a key through which the information can be retrieved.

What is Global.asa file?
It is text file that contains details about an ASP application, such as when it should begin and end.

What is an .ASP file?
It is a Text File that contains the combination of the following:
HTML tags
Script Commands

What is Response Object?
It controls the information sent to the user. The various methods are:
Response.Write - Sends information directly to a browser
Response.Redirect - Directs a user to a URL other than the requested URL
Response.ContentType - Controls the type of content sent
Response.Cookies - Sets cookie values
Response.Buffer - To Buffer information

Naming constraints for a variable ?
It can be up to 255 characters Must start with an alphabet Must not contain an embedded period or full-stop

What is a TextStream object?
It allows you to access(read/write) the contents of text files stored on the web server.

What is IIS?
IIS is a Web Server that provides Web services, not only for web pages but also for ftp sites and video and audio services. It integrates with the database facilities of SQL Server.

What is Request Object?
Gets information from the user. It has five collections by which values can be accessed. They are: Query string, Form, Cookies, Server Variables & Client Certificate

What are the special sub-types in VBScript?
EMPTY: has no value
NULL: Value does not exist (conjunction with database)

What is Cookies collection?
Cookies are text files that store information about the user by which the web server identifies and marks each different visitor to a web site and determines where a user has been before. A cookie can store information only when the user sends it. Individual cookies are limited to 4KB of data. The maximum number of cookies allowed is 300.
Cookies are stored on client’s machine.

What is the difference between Cookies collection and Form/Query string collection?
Cookie collection does not have the Count property. Cookies can have multiple values for the same cookie name but each value can be referred using a key whereas in a Form/Query string cookie each value has to be referred using an index value.

What is Server Object?
Controls the ASP execution environment. It can set the amount of time script can run before an error occurs. Converts a virtual path to a physical path on the server. Takes a user supplied string and encode it into proper format for a URL string.

What is Collection?
Collection is a set of name/value pairs where the information supplied by the client is stored.

How will you delete a Cookie?
By setting its Expires property to any date prior to today Response.Cookies("cookie name"). Expires = Date 1.

What is the function of Buffer in Response Object?
Buffer controls the HTML output stream manually.

How are scripts executed?
ASP provides scripting engines that execute the corresponding scripting languages on the server side. Scripts should be encoded within the Delimiters.

What is ASP (Active Server Pages)?
ASP is a server side-scripting environment for building dynamic and interactive web pages. Since the scripts run on the server side, the web server does all the processing.

What are ARRAYS?
Arrays are variables that store items of similar information.DIM ARRAY1(4) (declares an array with the name array1 with 5 elements)

What is Application-scope?
Application-scope means that variables (and objects) can be accessed from any ASP pages that is part of the application.

What is Extranet?
An area of a web site available only to a set of registered visitors.

a = 1
a = 2
< %
Response.Write a
% <
In the sample code shown above, what will be written to the screen?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 1, 2
D. 1&2
E. Nothing. (Answer)

< % iPos = Instr("Hello World","r") % <
Referring to the above, what is the value of iPos?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 8
E. 9 (Answer)

What are the types of HTML?
Static HTML Browser uses HTTP to request HTML file from the Web Server
Dynamic HTML Browser uses HTTP to request an executable application rather than a Static HTML file

What are the properties of Session Object?
SessionID returns the session identification number for each user.
Timeout sets the timeout period assigned to the Session object for any application, in minutes.
CodePage determines the code page that will be used to display content.
LCID a locale identifier, which determines time zone and language, rules for the system

What are the event handlers of Session Object?
Session _OnStart This event will be fired when a new user begins a session with the web site.
Session_OnEnd This event is called whenever a session terminates.

Name the ASP Objects?
Request Object
Response Object
Server Object
Session Object
Application Object

What are the advantages of using ASP?
Minimizes network traffic by limiting the need for the browser and server to talk to each other
Makes for quicker loading time since HTML pages are only downloaded
Allows to run programs in languages that are not supported by the browser
Can provide the client with data that does not reside on the client’s machine
Provides improved security measures since the script cannot be viewed by the browser

What are the methods in Application Object?
Lock prevents clients from modifying the variables stored in the Application object.
Unlock removes the lock from variables stored in the Application object.

What are the methods in Application Object?
Internet Information Server (IIS) on Windows NT
Personal Web Server (PWS) on Windows 95
Peer Web Services on Windows NT

What are the browsers that can access ASP pages?
Internet Explorer (supports VBScript, JavaScript)
Netscape Communicator/ Navigator (supports only JavaScript, VBScript can be also added too)

How does the server identify and execute the server-side scripts within HTML code?
Including the RUNAT=SERVER attribute

What are the methods by which output stream is controlled?
Flush sends previous buffered output to the client immediately, but continues processing the script.
Clear erases any already-buffered HTML.
End causes the server to stop processing the script.

What are the properties used to control the expiration of the page?
Expires specifies the number of minutes before a page cached on a browser expires.
ExpiresAbsolute sets the date and time at which a page cached on a browser expires.

What are the collections of Session Object?
Contents collection contains all the variables established for a session without using the tag.
Static collection contains all the objects created

What is the difference between ASP and HTML? Or Why ASP is better than HTML?
- ASP executes code on the server side whereas the browser interprets HTML.
- ASP can use any scripting languages
- Gets feedback from the user and return information to the user
- Create pages that will be customized to display only things that will be of interest to a particular user
- Can edit contents of a web page by updating a text file or a database rather than the HTML code itself

What are the event handlers of Application Object?
Application_OnStart- This event will be fired when the first visitor hits the page.
Application_OnEnd- This event runs when the server is stopped.

Name some of the ASP components?
Ad Rotator component- a way to manage advertisements on the web site.
Content Linker component - a technique to direct users through a set of pages on a web site by creating a list of URLs and description of the next and previous pages.
Browser Capabilities component - allows to customize the page to the ability of the browser viewing it.
Database Access component - allows to access data from the database

What are the tasks performed by < FORM > tags?
tags provides space for the user to input values
the form has a button to submit information back to the server
It transfers control to another ASP page
It carries the information in the fields to another ASP page

What are the tags necessary to be present within the
-----tag: Provides input spaces (text boxes, combo boxes, radio button, etc.) on a form called fields. It has three attributes TYPE, NAME and VALUE. TYPE provides the characteristics of the field and the NAME specifies a name to the field by which it can be referred.

What are the collections of Application Object?
* Contents collection - contains all variables added via scripts in global.asa.
* Static collection - contains the names of all objects.